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Troyu u


Troy is located within the province of Canakkale. The remains of the city were first excavated by a German archeologist, Heinrich Schliemann. Excavations in this area revealed 9 separate periods of settlement. Troy is famous since it has been associated with the sagas of the Trojan War that Homer wrote in the ‘Iliad’ and the ‘Odyses’. Thus Troy has been immortalized by Homer’s immortal story 0f King Priam, Hector, Paris and Helen.
TROY I (3000-2500 B.C.)

The first layer is the initial settlement of the Early Bronze Age. It consists of 10 strata.  The city was fortified by a wall made of rough stones. Today we can see only a short segment of this wall, some 12 m. long and the main gate with two square towers. There are some foundations of houses in Schliemann`s north-south trench as well.
Troy I, which had ten building phases, was eventually wiped out by a great fire.
TROY II (2500-2300 B.C.)

The second settlement at Hisarlık was built on top of the ruins of Troy I .There is evidence that the culture of Troy I continued in this period. Megarons were the general style of houses.
Troy II had a roughly circular plan about 110m. in diameter. It was a little larger than Troy I. The findings have shown us that the inhabitants of Troy II had quite a high standard of living. The treasure found by Schliemann of gold, silver, electron (an alloy of gold and silver) and bronze all belong to this period. The women of this period seemingly led a relative luxury life. Tory II was burned down by a warrior nation.
TROY III,IV,V (2300-1700 B.C.)

After the disaster that brought Troy II to an end, the survivors rebuilt the whole town. Since there was no fresh influence from outside the Troy , the same people followed the same way of life and clung to the same traditions.
The invaders of Troy II most probably left this place or assimilated with the natives and they lived together for a long era through Troy III, Troy IV and Troy V till the end of the Early Bronze Age.
Although each of these settlements had a greater population and occupied a larger area, none could create a better civilization than its predecessor. Each was like a village with irregular blocks of houses which were separated by narrow streets. During this period, Anatolia had many invasions. The Hittites in particular became a great power at this time. Because Schliemann removed all the walls of these periods, there neither are any remains left today nor do we know what brought each of them to an end.
TROY VI (1700-1250 B.C.)

The findings of Troy VI indicate a break from the past and a course of gradual change and development. Powerful fortifications and free standing houses show that these people were highly advanced in military engineering, masonry and town planning.
Today we can only see the remains of the fortification wall and a few houses along the outer periphery of the acropolis. It was accepted that the fortification walls of Troy VI were used during Troy VII a. The American expedition proved that the Troy of Priam was the first Phase of Troy VII. According to Prof. Fritz Schachermeyr, the Austrian archeologist and Prof. Ekrem Akurgal, the Turkish archeologist, Troy VI was the city of Priam. Whether it was VI or VII, the same city walls were used in both periods. That means that these walls were certainly the walls of Priam`s city.
Troy VI was brought to its end by a violent earthquake.
TROY VIIa (1250-1180 B.C.)

After the earthquake the survivors immediately repaired the fortification walls, reconstructed the old houses and built many new ones. The same people continued to occupy the same place through Troy VII a.
The numerous small and roughly built houses everywhere in the acropolis and innumerable storage jars indicate that a large number of people were sheltered within the walls. There are some traces of fire and fighting like arrow heads and spear heads on the walls and abundance of human skeletons. According to the American Cincinnatti University team, these traces and especially a human jaw cut by a sword is the indication that Troy VIIa was the Troy of Priam which was besieged and captured by the Achaens and destroyed by fire.
But again according to Prof. F. Schachermeyr and Prof. Ekrem Akurgal, Troy VI was the city of Priam. With fine fortifications, ingenious design and carefully constructed buildings, Troy VI fits in well with the lliad.
TROY VIIb. (1180-1000 B.C.)

After the departure of the Achaens, the citadel was reoccupied by the survivors. The first phase of Troy VIIb followed the same way of life as Troy VIIa. This stratum too was destroyed by fire.
TROY VII  (1000-85 B.C)

Troy VII was the first Greek settlement in Troy. At this time Greek culture was dominant and this stratum was a typical Greek colony. It was in this period when a religious area was built outside the western part of the Troy VI city wall. The Persian king Xerxes stayed here and sacrificed 1000 oxen to the Greek gods on his way to Greece (480 BC)
After bribing the enemy gods with the 1000 oxen, Xerxes had a bridge of ships over the Dardanelles. But the bridge was destroyed by the strong current. Then he punished the Dardanelles by whipping the waters 300 times. Later two new bridges were built; One for the animals and the other for the soldiers.
Alexander the Great, on his way to Granicus, stayed here and made valuable offerings. (334 BC). He also ordered Lysimachus, one of his commanders, to build the Temple of Athena.
TROY IX (85 B.C. - 400 or 600 A.D.)

The top stratum, which was built on the ruins of the earlier settlement at Hisarlık, was the Hellenistic and Roman city. This last settlement which is known as "Novum llium" or New "llion" made great progress at the time of the early Roman emperors. The great Roman emperors chose the Trojans as their ancestors. Also at this time the town was spread all over the ridge and was bigger than it had ever been in its long history.
It was in this period when water pipes and aqueducts were built to supply wat
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